Ok, so what’s an Antenna?
An Antenna is a transitional structure between free space and the guiding device.
In simple terms, Antenna is a structure which takes the signals from the guiding device and transmits into free space.
The legendary guy James Clerk Maxwell \m/ made the ultimate breakthrough in the field of Electromagnetism. He unified the theories of electricity and magnetism and showed that could they mutually sustain each other, one giving rise to another. And thus came the revelation of Electro-Magnetic waves.
And then all the saints and scientists started putting efforts to prove this exciting theory in practice. Finally, in 1887, Professor Heinrich Rudolph Hertz was able to prove it. More info here: http://bit.ly/gRz6bo
In fact in 1901, Guglielmo Marconi was able to send Morse Code over the Atlantic ocean via Electromagnetic transmission.
His transmitter consisted of 50 wires in the form of a fan attached to the ground via a spark transmitter. And the receiver was a 200m long wire pulled up using a kite. (in the picture above). The first message transmitted was “Are you ready”. And he did all that at the age of 22. Dude! After all this, telegraphy became wireless which used to be wired earlier.
Then came the world war frenzy. And all the nations got busy advancing their technologies to cast fear on their enemies. During World War 2, many significant improvements were made in the Antenna technology. Especially for the naval warfare. The main issue with transmitting under water is that only low frequencies can be used. And lower the frequency, higher wavelength and larger the size of antennas required. The most powerful and prominent VLF (Very Low Frequency) transmitter of World War II was the German Antenna, “Goliath,” stationed North East of Calbe by the river Elbe.Built in 1941, this antenna was capable of outputting up to 1000 – 2000 kWatts of power, strong enough to send signals to submarines in the Indian Ocean. http://bit.ly/exARBk . Awesome. (Goliath shown below)